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What is "Just Transition"?

Jobs after Coal: A Just Transition for New Zealand Communities

This report examines New Zealand’s coal sector, identifies opportunities for green growth and development in a low-carbon economy, and offers general policy recommendations for a just transition


This report examines the coal industry in New Zealand, including the various challenges the industry is facing in the country and globally. The authors suggest ways in which coal communities can reinvent themselves and identify areas in which they will need help in planning a transition to a low-carbon economy.

The report discusses the potential losses and regional impacts of a transition away from coal and examines the possibility of sustainable job creation in a low-carbon economy. It draws on experiences from various transitions around the world to inform how the transition to a green economy could be achieved in New Zealand. The authors offer a general policy roadmap to achieve a transition, emphasizing the importance of early assessments of the impacts of phase-out scenarios and social dialogue with workers and their unions. They call for a long-term planning process that involves all stakeholders to take place prior to the transition.

Towards a Just and Equitable Low-carbon Energy Transition

This paper presents a high-level review of existing literature on energy and non-energy transitions, exploring the distributive consequences of energy transitions and identifying common features of successful transitions.


This paper explores which regions, sectors, and groups could be adversely affected by a rapid low-carbon energy transition and offers lessons from previous transitions that could minimize the adverse impacts of current and future transitions. The authors discuss the broader distributional impacts of low-carbon transitions. These include the effect of higher energy costs on poor and middle-income households due to carbon pricing or the removal of fossil fuel subsidies, the implications of lost fossil fuel-related revenues for specific countries and regions, the impact on regions and workers heavily dependent on carbon-intensive industries, and the potentially adverse consequences of rapidly deploying low-carbon technologies.

The paper presents a high-level review of existing literature on energy and non-energy transitions. While the authors focus on the distributive consequences of energy transitions, they also explore how equitable transitions are achieved. They provide examples and brief summaries of policy mechanisms incorporated in previous transitions. Based on their review, the authors identify common features of successful transitions: foresight and timing, social dialogue and coordination among stakeholders, short-term protections coupled with active government involvement in reindustrialization, and assistance to those potentially impacted by higher energy prices