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What is "Just Transition"?

Just Transitions: Assessing Gender Dimensions

This podcast discusses the gender dimensions of just transitions and offers recommendations for policy planning and implementation.


This podcast focuses on the gender and social dimensions of just transitions. Adrienne Cruz with the International Labor Organization and May Thazin Aung with the Stockholm Environment Institute join Sarah Ladislaw from CSIS’s Energy Security and Climate Change Program to explore gender dimensions and strategies to support gender equitable outcomes and processes.

They discuss lessons from past experiences, as well as the need for gender responsive policies that address women’s unique challenges and needs and that promote their involvement in decision-making processes.

Potential of Climate-Smart Agriculture in Reducing Women Farmers’ Drudgery in High Climatic Risk Areas

This case study examines the potential for climate-smart agriculture to reduce the labor burden on women farmers in Rupandehi and Chitwan, two Nepalese districts affected by climate change.


This case study analyzes the potential for climate-smart agriculture (CSA) to reduce women farmers’ labor burden in Nepal. CSA practices seek to improve agricultural productivity, build resilient food production systems, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. CSA, in addition to reducing labor hours, has a significant role in expanding women’s access to agricultural resources and inclusion in decision-making processes. Therefore, CSA is an important tool in the transformation of global food systems in response to climate change.

Nepal was selected because of its low rank on gender-related development indicators, its increasing feminization of agriculture due to male out-migration, and its increasingly frequent extreme weather events. Rupandehi and Chitwan were randomly chosen as focal areas from a list of predetermined hotspots that have high levels of climate risk, poverty, and women’s participation in agriculture. The study sought to determine which CSA practices most reduced women’s labor burden in agriculture. The authors identify direct-seeded rice, zero-tillage machines, laser land leveling, and green manuring as the most effective practices.

Supporting Women Farmers in a Changing Climate: Five Policy Lessons

This policy brief outlines five recommendations for engaging women farmers in dealing with and mitigating climate change.


This policy brief identifies current struggles associated with women farmers experiencing a changing climate, offers solutions to enhance their inclusion in formulating strategies for adaptation and mitigation, and provides examples of positive outcomes.

In the developing world, four-fifths of employed women work in agriculture, and a growing number of women are involved in agriculture as men abandon rural areas to find work in urban centers. Yet many women farmers have less access than men to resources for improving crop yields, including irrigation technology and climate information systems. Women are also more frequently left out of agricultural decision-making or policy processes. This brief offers five recommendations: new technologies must be appropriate to women’s resources and demands; extension and climate information services need to serve women and men; institutions must address women’s priorities; women’s innovation processes need to be recognized and supported; and policymaking processes must include women’s voices.

The authors suggest that gender dimensions should be included as qualifying criteria to access international funding from sources such as the Clean Development Mechanism and the Green Climate Fund. They also suggest that monitoring and evaluation programs incorporate gender indicators that emphasize not only women’s participation in climate change processes but their active engagement in designing projects and monitoring impacts.

Gender in the Transition to Sustainable Energy for All: From Evidence to Inclusive Policies

This report summarizes a five-year research program investigating the links between gender, energy, and poverty and offers energy policy recommendations based on its findings.


This report synthesizes a five-year research program investigating the links between gender, energy, and poverty. The objective was to analyze the benefits of a gender-aware approach in energy access interventions. Nine research teams from 29 research institutions, including 21 in the Global South, conducted research in 12 countries. Using a mixed-methods approach, the researchers examined gender, energy, and poverty linkages in six thematic areas. They sought to explore the potential for adopting a gender-aware approach to energy access that could enhance equity between women and men and empower women through improved access to modern energy services.

Modern energy services and appliances, in the household and in micro- and small-scale enterprises, can change gender roles and dynamics of power. The research examined how these norms can change over time, what causes them to change, and how they vary across different contexts. It identified three levels at which factors influence decision-making and power relations between women and men: the micro level of households; the meso level of local government agencies and women’s organizations; and the macro level of national policymaking.

The authors provide recommendations for energy policy and practice based on a gender-aware approach, understanding that the ways in which gender norms influence needs, access, and control over energy services differ between communities.