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What is "Just Transition"?

Urgent Action to Combat Climate Change and Its Impacts (SDG 13): Transforming Agriculture and Food Systems

This academic paper examines the relevance of agriculture and food systems to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) number 13, which urges action on climate change, and its ties to both agricultural systems and other SDGs.


This academic paper connects the agricultural applications of the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) number 13 on climate action to the 2-degree target set by the Paris Agreement and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It then demonstrates the connections between SDG 13 and the other SDGs, specifically as they relate to food systems.

To demonstrate the links between SDGs, this paper uses the example of nitrogen fertilizer use. Runoff from excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer contaminates land and water and undermines SDG 6 (clean water), SDG 13 (climate action), SDG 14 (ocean life), and SDG 15 (life on land). Alternatively, if too little fertilizer is used, the resulting lower crop yields threaten SDG 1 (no poverty), SDG 2 (no hunger), and SDG 3 (good health). When an optimal amount of nitrogen fertilizer is used, progress is made toward achieving the above SDGs in addition to SDG 12 (responsible consumption and production).

The authors suggest progress toward the SDGs requires a transformation of food systems. They propose a theory of change based on eight interrelated recommendations: expand private sector activity and public–private partnerships; provide innovative credit and insurance; strengthen local organizations and networking; issue climate-informed advisories and early warning systems; develop digital agriculture; develop climate-resilient and low-emission practices and technologies; prioritize pathways of change; and build capacity and enable policy and institutions.

IDFC Green Finance Mapping Report 2019

This report evaluates the progress of the International Development Finance Club in mobilizing green financing to meet climate and development goals.


During the United Nations Climate Action Summit 2019, the International Development Finance Club (IDFC) committed to mobilizing more than $1 trillion to further the Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goals between 2019 and 2025, including enabling and leveraging private finance for these ends. This annual report analyzes green finance commitments made in 2018 based on survey data submitted by 17 of the IDFC members to evaluate their progress toward these goals.

This report divides green finance into two major categories: climate finance and other environmental objectives. The former is composed of funding for green energy and climate change mitigation and/or adaptation. The latter is composed of funding for other environmental objectives, namely improving waste and water management, protecting biodiversity, and controlling industrial pollution. The report also analyzes green finance flows from their original sources and provides statistics by IDFC member, region of destination, financial instrument, sector of use, and sub-sectoral technologies.

The results indicate a decrease in overall green finance from record levels in 2017, specifically in mitigation and other non–climate-related environmental projects. Consistent with previous years, climate finance was dominated by funding for green energy and greenhouse gas mitigation. However, adaptation finance continues to grow in absolute and relative terms. The results of the survey indicate national and regional development banks may be at a critical juncture, requiring support from governments and regulators to increase their financial commitments to climate and development goals.