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What is "Just Transition"?

Assessing the Gender and Social Equity Dimensions of Energy Transitions

Through a systemic analysis of academic literature, this report explores the state of knowledge on how the diffusion of low-carbon technologies impacts gender and social equity.


There is a lack of dedicated research and knowledge on the gender and social equity implications of low-carbon energy transitions. This paper examines these justice implications through a systemic analysis of peer-reviewed literature.

The authors explore the general trends and interconnectedness of the positive and negative impacts of introducing low-carbon technologies, most of which are broadly related to economics. Poverty alleviation and energy self-sufficiency were the dominant positive impacts, while issues of land loss and displacement were the dominant negative ones. The authors explore the broader implications on female gender roles, poverty and employment, land loss, and (un)equal access through specific examples in the academic literature.

Based on their findings, they conclude that low-carbon energy systems are not inherently more inclusive or empowering than traditional energy systems. The outcome of a transition is not determined by the technology itself, but rather the ways in which the technology interplays with the existing sociocultural, socioeconomic, and institutional context. They emphasize the need for inclusive institutional arrangements that ensure a just process and provide general recommendations based on these needs.


Distributional Impacts of Mining Transitions: Learning from the Past

This paper examines the distributional impacts of mining transitions and of common policy responses through a systemic review of literature on past mine closures and declines.


Discussions on mine decline and closure primarily focus on the economic impacts. There is limited empirical evidence of the actual distributional impacts, particularly of policy responses designed to address them. The authors conduct a systemic analysis of literature on past mine closures and declines to evaluate the potential distributional impacts of the transitions and of their common policy responses.

The authors largely focus on the distributional impacts (social, economic, and political) in relation to gender and age. They find the economic decline disrupted traditional gender norms for women and especially affected young people seeking to enter the job market, often resulting in disenchantment and migration. They also examine how distributional impacts can emerge from programs designed to restore jobs, rehabilitate the socioeconomic conditions of mining communities, and prevent out-migration. Based on these findings, they provide general recommendations and considerations for future policies.