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What is "Just Transition"?

Enabling a just transition to a low-carbon economy in the energy sector: Progress and lessons in Emerging Markets

The report looks at the scope of just transitions in the energy sector in emerging markets, specifically Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa (BRICS) as well as the Next 11 countries, through a simplified framework.


The report takes a broad look at the enabling environment for just transitions in the energy sector in BRICS and the Next 11 countries through a framework that considers the macroeconomic and energy sector conditions, employment policies, and social structures in these countries.

The report finds that employment policies that exist across the countries, while key to economic growth, are often disconnected from the energy transition and wider macroeconomic planning. While the authors briefly map out the stakeholder base involved in just transitions in the energy sector, the report focuses on the role played by the government, businesses, and workers. The report posits the key role that state-owned enterprises (SEOs) have to play in enabling a just transition and identifies the absence of engagement platforms as a hindrance to effective dialogue.

The report applies a framework that uses transition indicators to broadly illustrate each country’s level of readiness for a just transition. However, the effectiveness of the indicators in representing procedural justice and inclusion issues will have to be assessed further.

Signals of Transformational Change: Insights from the Evaluation of Transformational Change in the Climate Investment Funds

This report presents an evaluative framework to use “signals” to assess transformational change across each of the Climate Investment Funds’ thematic programs.


Itad, a nongovernmental organization focused on inclusive development, conducted an independent evaluation of the Climate Investment Funds’ (CIF) portfolio. The CIF’s portfolio represents a variety of sectors and projects in different contexts and stages of implementation. This brief explains the challenge of identifying transformational change and presents the frameworks that were developed to assess transformational change using “signals.”

Signals are system characteristics that demonstrate progress towards transformation. They can be identified at the early, interim, and advanced stages of each of the four dimensions of transformational change: relevance, systemic change, scaling, and sustainability. Some signals are universal to all types of development programs but many are specific to one sector. For this reason, Itad developed frameworks, including illustrative examples, for each of the CIF’s four thematic programs: clean technology, scaling renewable energy, climate resilience, and sustainable forests.