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Resource Library

This library provides a curated list of resources on just transitions, to help users locate key research material and policy guidance on just transitions.

The Just Transition Initiative has summarized these resources, and these descriptions do not necessarily represent the views of the associated authors and organizations.

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A Just Transition for Whom? Politics, Contestation, and Social Identity in the Disruption of Coal in the Powder River Basin

This case study on the Powder River Basin in Wyoming examines the impact of the sudden shutdown of two large coal mines on local perceptions toward the energy transition and just transition policies.

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This case study examines whether attitudes toward the U.S. energy transition and just transitions changed following the bankruptcy and closure of two large coal mines in 2019 in the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming. PBR, the largest coal-mining region in the United States, is home to highly productive and environmentally sustainable mechanized mining and lucrative mining jobs.

The author sets out to empirically determine whether conditions exist that allow for decreased opposition to the transition and increased support for government intervention. The analysis relies on interviews from 13 local individuals, including elected officials, advocates, government officials, a local reporter, and coal industry professionals—but no coal industry workers, as they declined to be interviewed.

The interviews suggest the sudden closure of two mines reinforced negative perceptions toward the energy transition. In fact, there is strong support for continuing to develop the coal mining industry, with advocates claiming that the less invasive mechanized mining used in the region means that PRB coal is an environmentally sustainable option. The transition remains heavily contested in the area because of the strong economic impact of the coal industry on the PRB and the deep cultural ties to mining in the area. Additionally, because of its remoteness and distance from transportation hubs, there is little impetus for economic diversification in the PRB.

Supporting Just Transitions in South Africa: A Case Study

This case study explores key dimensions of just transitions and draws lessons from the Climate Investment Funds (CIF)’s contributions to the energy transition, the expansion of renewable energy, and the implications for workers and communities in South Africa.

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This case study explores key dimensions of just transition in South Africa, which has a long engagement with the concept and was one of the first countries to include an explicit reference to just transitions in its Nationally Determined Contribution. The case study reflects on the contributions of the Climate Investment Funds (CIF), through its partner multilateral development banks, to the energy transition in South Africa.

The document uses the just transitions framework developed by the CIF and the Center for Strategic and International Studies to explore issues of social inclusion and distributional justice in South Africa’s energy transition. It provides a broader review of South Africa’s energy transition implications for national planning, and discusses social inclusion, financing, Covid-19 recovery programs, skills development and geographic disparities.

How (Not) to Phase-out Coal: Lessons from Germany for Just and Timely Coal Exits

This paper identifies nine key lessons learned from Germany’s coal phaseout to help guide effective and equitable coal transitions elsewhere in the world.

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This report examines the positive and negative elements of the coal transition process in Germany. The authors propose nine benchmarks for governing coal phaseouts in Europe and elsewhere. A timely and just coal phaseout requires good leadership, transparency, social inclusion, and the legal flexibility to adapt to changing circumstances, among other aspects.

Looking at the legislation shaping Germany’s coal phaseout, the authors argue that its decision to set a rigid deadline created an unstable transition process and generated conflict. They suggest that the lack of flexibility in the country’s legal framework will result in an unsynchronized coal exit with no room for “future governments to adjust the pathways and end date.” Although a national commission was created to oversee the phaseout, the authors criticize the lack of clarity regarding the implementation of its recommendations. They claim that regional and local stakeholders were not sufficiently involved in the phaseout process and call for aligning just transition measures with climate and sustainable development targets

Environmental Remediation and Infrastructure Policies Supporting Workers and Communities in Transition

This report reviews U.S. federal policies related to environmental remediation and infrastructure spending that can help support workers in fossil fuel–dependent communities.

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This report examines major federal policies related to environmental remediation and infrastructure spending, highlighting evidence of the effectiveness of these programs in terms of costs, job creation, and positive externalities. The author identifies programs that could support the communities and workers who are negatively affected by an energy transition. The author measures the cost-effectiveness of federal spending on programs to clean up “Superfund” sites, cap orphaned oil and gas wells, improve water infrastructure, construct and maintain highways, and install broadband capacity.

One section of the paper covers environmental remediation, including the closure of coal mines and nuclear or oil and gas sites. The paper notes the positive spillover effects, such as increased property values, of many environmental remediation programs. A second section covers infrastructure programs that support construction and related industries. The author notes that economists disagree on whether federal spending on infrastructure, for example highway construction, creates more economic activity or simply redistributes it.

Both environmental remediation and infrastructure programs can contribute to a just transition. However, the author warns of potential environmental justice concerns that can result from federal spending in these areas, including post-remediation gentrification and worsening air pollution in minority communities due to transportation infrastructure.

Just Transitions: Assessing Gender Dimensions

This podcast discusses the gender dimensions of just transitions and offers recommendations for policy planning and implementation.

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This podcast focuses on the gender and social dimensions of just transitions. Adrienne Cruz with the International Labor Organization and May Thazin Aung with the Stockholm Environment Institute join Sarah Ladislaw from CSIS’s Energy Security and Climate Change Program to explore gender dimensions and strategies to support gender equitable outcomes and processes.

They discuss lessons from past experiences, as well as the need for gender responsive policies that address women’s unique challenges and needs and that promote their involvement in decision-making processes.

Just Transitions: Local Lessons and Global Insights from South Africa

This Energy 360 podcast on just transitions in South Africa provides local lessons and broader global insights from a country that has a long history of engaging with just transitions in the context of high levels of unemployment, inequality, poverty, and a high dependency on coal.

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This podcast provides an easily accessible overview of the implications of just transitions in South Africa’s energy transition. The interview format allows a range of issues to be covered drawing on many years of experience within the energy sector, as well as a recent case study on just transitions in South Africa.

Topics covered include the importance of just transitions in a country that has some of the highest levels of inequality, unemployment, and poverty in the world. South Africa is also dependent on coal for the vast majority of its energy, particularly electricity, despite a substantial renewable energy procurement program. It is in this context that issues of sustainable development, social dialogue, financing a just transition, social transformation, geographic disparities, and skills development are discussed.

Economic Development Policies to Enable Fairness for Workers and Communities in Transition

This report analyzes the potential efficacy of U.S. federal policies and programs that could help fossil fuel–producing regions and workers transition to a low-carbon future.

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This report analyzes the U.S. federal programs that could help fossil fuel–producing regions transition to a low-carbon future. It divides these programs into those that target local or regional economies driven by natural resource development (including timber and agriculture as well as fossil fuels) and those with broader geographic or economic scope. The authors suggest that the former, place-based development approaches can be especially effective.

The report examines three regional economic approaches that might be successful in a just transition context: offering capacity-building programs and technical assistance, financially supporting public and community organizations, and financially supporting private firms that may otherwise struggle to access funding. The authors also indicate that such efforts would require coordination among federal, state, and local officials and that substantial scaling up would be required for them to have a meaningful impact.

The report identifies programs that target natural resource–dependent communities and highlights a handful of initiatives that could aid just transitions efforts. For example, the Economic Development Integration program coordinates multiple economic development initiatives across agencies while making deliverables more efficient, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s rural development programs provide technical and financial support for public and private rural institutions. An extensive appendix in the report details many federal policies in full.

Just Transitions: Lessons Learned in South Africa and Eastern Europe

This commentary summarizes critical elements of case studies on just transitions to help guide future research, and includes lessons learned in ongoing just transitions work in South Africa and Eastern Europe.

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This commentary summarizes a workshop held by the Climate Investment Funds (CIF) and the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) on just transitions in South Africa and Eastern Europe. More case studies on sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America, and developing Asia could shed light on just transitions in countries with fewer economic resources and more limited social safety nets. The commentary includes a table summarizing critical elements of case studies to help identify key insights and best practices in future research.

In South Africa, just transitions are urgent because market and policy signals indicate an inevitable decline of coal, yet a transition could harm workers and communities dependent on coal mining. Policies intended to elevate renewable energy in the country have also failed to support energy access for black communities or address issues of racial injustice. The author notes that just transitions in South Africa need to address issues of inclusivity and power relations.

Central and Eastern Europe is a focal point for just transitions as many countries in the region anticipate phasing out coal and emissions-intensive industries in the coming decades. This commentary cites several positive examples of community engagement and local participation in just transitions. However, case studies indicate that more should be done to boost input at the local level.

Low-carbon Transitions in West Sumatra, Indonesia: Gender and Equity Dimensions

This brief provides community perspectives on renewable energy projects, focusing on gender and social equity concerns in low-carbon transitions in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

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This brief provides snapshots of community perspectives on renewable energy projects in West Sumatra, Indonesia, and suggests that customized approaches are needed to address local gender and social equity concerns effectively in low-carbon transitions.

West Sumatra was selected for this study due to its high potential for renewable energy generation and diversity of possible renewable energy sources. The authors reviewed four development sites in West Sumatra as transition examples: two geothermal projects, one micro hydro project, and an oil palm company that produces biofuel and also uses waste as biomass for energy production. They conducted interviews and focus group discussions that illuminate local gender and social equity implications, which often related to customary land management practices and gender roles. They also explore lessons learned from Indonesia’s subsidy program for liquified petroleum gas.

The authors argue that policymakers should adopt a gender-sensitive approach to renewable energy decision-making to identify potential policy repercussions that could worsen existing inequalities. This approach will produce results that benefit more people and satisfy the needs of more interest groups.

Actions to Transform Food Systems under Climate Change

This report identifies the current failures of the global food system and defines four areas in which it can be transformed to meet food and nutritional demands and combat climate change.

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“This report identifies the current failures of global food systems in eliminating food insecurity, providing nutritious food, and mitigating climate change. The global food system is currently a major contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fails to provide an adequate pathway to meet the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals.

To correct these food system failures, the authors recommend 11 transformative actions across four distinct categories: rerouting farming practices to eliminate GHG emissions and increase female and youth participation; de-risking farm livelihoods to increase resiliency against variable weather and extreme events; reducing emissions through dietary shifts and reductions in food waste; and realigning policies and finance to support social movements and spur innovation.

The costs of not reforming global food systems include increased food and nutrition insecurity, decreased smallholder participation, increased rural poverty, increased gender disparities and social inclusion, lost opportunities for rural youth, increased sensitivity to changing climate and extreme weather events, and loss of biodiversity.”

The EBRD Just Transition Initiative: Sharing the Benefits of a Green Economy Transition and Protecting Vulnerable Countries, Regions and People from Falling behind

This paper sets out the aims, rationale, and broad approach to implementation of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development’s just transition initiative.

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This paper examines how the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) will support progress in the economies where it invests. The paper outlines the aims, rationale, and broad approach to implementation of the EBRD’s just transition initiative, which aims to help the bank’s regions share the benefits of a green economic transition and to protect vulnerable countries, regions, and people from falling behind. The initiative builds on the EBRD’s experience of fostering transition toward sustainable, well-functioning market economies and focuses on the link between the green economy and economic inclusion. Working with national and regional authorities, EBRD clients, and other partners, the initiative emphasizes policy and commercial financing interventions that support a green transition while also assisting workers (particularly those whose livelihoods are linked to fossil fuels) in accessing new opportunities.

The paper includes an overview of the EBRD’s emerging just transition diagnostic and metrics for screening investments. This approach helps the bank screen certain regions and industries for vulnerabilities, assess the potential for various investments to advance just transition objectives and the bank’s core goals, and develop a set of policies and investment activities. This framework is especially useful in demonstrating how development finance institutions can link individual investments with broader regional plans, including in place-based investment.

Just Transitions: Progress to Date and Challenges Ahead

This commentary focuses on gaps in knowledge and key research questions related to just transitions, identifying eight areas that merit more research and policy guidance.

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This commentary summarizes a workshop held by the Climate Investment Funds (CIF) and the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) on just transitions. It identifies eight topics that merit new research and practical guidance. Several of these themes center on implementation. Most case studies focus on Western countries, but case studies and guidance should account for the political, economic, social, and environmental context in the Global South. Just transitions proponents should also focus on power dynamics and political economy issues, to identify potential blockers and enablers.

The authors note that cities, regional governments, and local actors are often left out of planning processes. The commentary suggests that workers in the informal sector should have greater prominence in just transitions plans. Social protections and worker assistance should also account for the needs of women as well as indigenous people and ethnic minorities.

The commentary identifies critical questions related to financing a just transition. It notes the importance of place-based investment for affected regions, as well as the need for new financing instruments to meet the scale of the climate challenge. Although private investors have a key role to play in financing just transitions, there is more work to be done on educating investors on just transitions principles, especially in terms of social as opposed to environmental goals.

Just Transition Concepts and Relevance for Climate Action

This report explains the origins and evolution of just transitions, and offers a framework to represent the range of definitions as well as underlying ideologies and approaches.

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This report outlines the origins of just transitions in the US labor movement, the later adoption of the concept by the environmental and climate justice movements, and its role in international climate negotiations. The authors note that the term “just transitions” evokes a range of responses, from enthusiasm to confusion to outright skepticism, suggesting the need for a clear definition.

The paper presents a framework to capture the range of definitions and interpretations of just transitions. One key dimension is scope, including both distributional impacts—or who and what is affected in transitions—as well as intention (the ideological preference between reforming or transforming existing political and economic systems through just transitions). The other dimension in the framework is social inclusion, or the range of recognition and procedural justice for various groups. The framework does not seek to identify a single “correct” definitions of just transitions, but rather captures a range of ideologies and approaches to the concept.

A final section of the paper suggests that the next stage of just transitions work will be to advance solutions and to apply lessons learned. The authors list several priorities for future research including concrete tools and strategies, more case studies of developing countries, more effective social engagement, and new financing methods.

Seven Principles to Realize a Just Transition to a Low-carbon Economy

This report proposes seven basic policy principles to support just transitions in response to climate change and offers concrete ways to apply these principles in practice.

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“Based on a critical review of former transitions, the authors distill seven basic principles for ensuring just transitions: actively encourage decarbonization; avoid creating carbon lock-in and more “losers” in these sectors; support affected regions; support workers, their families, and the wider community affected by closures or downscaling; clean up environmental damage and ensure that related costs are not transferred from the private to the public sector; address existing economic and social inequalities; and ensure an inclusive and transparent planning process.

These principles highlight the importance of supporting affected workers but place equal emphasis on ensuring environmental protection and restoration, diversifying industry and other economic activities, and tackling socioeconomic inequity (including gender inequality) in an active pursuit of decarbonization. The authors offer recommendations on how to implement each of these principles, arguing that the justness of a transition comes from pursuing each of these principles simultaneously and that failure to do so will result in a lack of necessary social and economic support. “

Mine Closure and Rehabilitation in South Africa: Activating Coalitions of the Willing for a Just Future

This brief discusses the outcome of two conferences organized by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Mining Dialogue 360 and proposes just solutions for South Africa’s future mine closures.

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This brief presents the challenges, outcomes, and suggested solutions resulting from two conferences that the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) and Mining Dialogue 360 held in Johannesburg and Cape Town in December 2019 and January 2020, respectively. The discussions focused on two central themes: ways to strengthen existing policies and legislation regulating mine closures in South Africa and the role of land rehabilitation in supporting a just transition.

An orderly process of mine closures and land rehabilitation in South Africa is still far from reality despite existing legislation. This brief denounces the incoherence in existing policies and the government’s inability to enforce them. The authors call for regulatory reform, greater transparency, and a strict enforcement of laws penalizing non-compliance.

The paper argues in favor of greater community inclusion to ensure transformative mine closure and rehabilitation processes that are in the best interest of the fossil fuel–dependent communities. The authors see early planning as the best approach to successfully shifting to a post-mining, sustainable economy. However, they remain skeptical that South Africa can oversee such a transformation due to the lack of basic mechanisms such as multi-stakeholder cooperation.

Who Needs a Just Transition?

This commentary introduces the just transitions concept, summarizes its importance in meeting climate and social equity goals, and emphasizes the need to define the term more clearly and increase its appeal.

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This short commentary introduces the just transitions concept and emphasizes its role in helping to meet climate and justice goals. It briefly outlines the origins of the term in the labor movement and its later adoption by the international climate community. The commentary notes that climate change will create unavoidable social and economic changes that will be distributed unevenly, underscoring the need for a proactive approach.

The authors acknowledge that the term “just transitions” is unfamiliar to many, while to others it suggests a threat to their livelihoods and way of life. A failure to better engage with labor unions, threatened business sectors, and governments has created resistance to decarbonization plans. However, the authors argue that just transitions can provide an organizing principle for dialogue and engagement, as well as a means of securing buy-in for climate action.

Finally, the commentary notes the relative lack of useful guidance on implementing just transitions, and the need for more concrete tools and strategies. A careful review of lessons learned about implementation, as well as practical plans and resources for policymakers and practitioners, will be critical in helping to advance just transitions.

Just Transitions: An Introduction

This podcast discusses the importance of a just transition in the context of climate change policies and investments and explores the impact of Covid-19 on just transitions.

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This podcast provides an accessible introduction to concept and importance of a just transition in the context of climate change policies and investments. Mafalda Duarte, head of the Climate Investment Funds, and Nick Robins, Professor in Sustainable Finance with the Grantham Institute, join Sarah Ladislaw with the CSIS Energy Security and Climate Change Program to explain the meaning and importance of a just transition in the context of their work. They move on to discuss how investors can support just transitions and close by examining the potential impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic on the just transition agenda.

A Systemic Review of the Key Elements of a Just Transition for Fossil Fuel Workers

This paper identifies key elements of a just transition for fossil fuel workers and characterizes these elements according to a preexisting justice framework.

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In recognition of the disparate definitions of a just transition, this paper synthesizes the scholarly literature to identify its various elements. Through their review, the authors also seek to identify the field’s theoretical and empirical knowledge gaps. They specifically focus on the effect of bold climate action on fossil-fuel workers and their communities.

The systemic literature review includes 33 articles from different academic fields. The literature tends to focus on coal workers (as opposed to other fossil fuel workers) in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and is largely normative and descriptive. Collectively, these articles emphasize 17 key elements of a just transition. The authors briefly describe each of these elements and characterize them according to the Heffron and McCauley’s “JUST” framework of legal geography (i.e., distributional, procedural, restorative, recognition-based, and cosmopolitanism-based justices, as well as spatial scales and timeframe). They show how theoretical concepts such as forms of justice forms relate to specific strategies for just transitions.

Distributional Impacts of Mining Transitions: Learning from the Past

This paper examines the distributional impacts of mining transitions and of common policy responses through a systemic review of literature on past mine closures and declines.

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Discussions on mine decline and closure primarily focus on the economic impacts. There is limited empirical evidence of the actual distributional impacts, particularly of policy responses designed to address them. The authors conduct a systemic analysis of literature on past mine closures and declines to evaluate the potential distributional impacts of the transitions and of their common policy responses.

The authors largely focus on the distributional impacts (social, economic, and political) in relation to gender and age. They find the economic decline disrupted traditional gender norms for women and especially affected young people seeking to enter the job market, often resulting in disenchantment and migration. They also examine how distributional impacts can emerge from programs designed to restore jobs, rehabilitate the socioeconomic conditions of mining communities, and prevent out-migration. Based on these findings, they provide general recommendations and considerations for future policies.

Incorporating Just Transition Strategies in Developing Country Nationally Determined Contributions

This report examines how developing countries can incorporate just transition principles into their revised Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to enable more ambitious and equitable emissions reduction strategies.

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This report explores how low- and middle-income countries can incorporate just transitions principles into their revised Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to the Paris Agreement goals. Writing for an intended audience of policymakers involved in drafting NDCs for developing countries, the authors explain the evolution of the just transitions concept and provide guidance on incorporating just transition language into NDCs. They suggest a timeline for each stage of the process and identify the resources available to assist in implementation.

Given the common perception that the just transitions concept is mainly relevant to developed countries, this report aims to link just transitions to the circumstances and needs of low- and middle-income countries. The report presents a brief overview of the just transition concept, its evolution and how it became embedded in the UN climate process during the Paris Agreement. The authors explain the importance of incorporating just transitions into NDCs. They call for countries to undertake labor market reforms, identify sectors that will be affected by climate change policies, and engage with all stakeholders to address those impacts.

The authors also present a just transitions “toolbox” developed by the 24th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP24), organizing suggestions and best practices into three groups: transition of the labor market, sustainable production and consumption, and inclusive transitions.

Assessing the Gender and Social Equity Dimensions of Energy Transitions

Through a systemic analysis of academic literature, this report explores the state of knowledge on how the diffusion of low-carbon technologies impacts gender and social equity.

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There is a lack of dedicated research and knowledge on the gender and social equity implications of low-carbon energy transitions. This paper examines these justice implications through a systemic analysis of peer-reviewed literature.

The authors explore the general trends and interconnectedness of the positive and negative impacts of introducing low-carbon technologies, most of which are broadly related to economics. Poverty alleviation and energy self-sufficiency were the dominant positive impacts, while issues of land loss and displacement were the dominant negative ones. The authors explore the broader implications on female gender roles, poverty and employment, land loss, and (un)equal access through specific examples in the academic literature.

Based on their findings, they conclude that low-carbon energy systems are not inherently more inclusive or empowering than traditional energy systems. The outcome of a transition is not determined by the technology itself, but rather the ways in which the technology interplays with the existing sociocultural, socioeconomic, and institutional context. They emphasize the need for inclusive institutional arrangements that ensure a just process and provide general recommendations based on these needs.

 

Green Jobs and a Just Transition for Climate Action in Asia and the Pacific

This report discusses the potential for green job creation and a just transition in the Asia-Pacific region.

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This report discusses the potential for green job creation and sustainable development in the Asia-Pacific region in the context of just transitions. It outlines how the region could accelerate this transformation by creating clean energy jobs that contribute to climate change mitigation—provided certain policy measures are put in place.

The report explores some of the opportunities and challenges of green job creation in the Asia-Pacific, in particular in the climate-vulnerable Pacific islands and in the textile and garment industry, a polluting sector that is nonetheless an important source of women’s employment and foreign investment. It then explores lessons learned from just transition pilot programs in the Philippines and Uruguay.

The report groups its recommendations for how to address the challenges of a just transition in Asia-Pacific into five categories: policy and institutions, training and capacity building, social dialogues and collaboration, awareness raising, and financing.

The Just Transition Fund: 4 Benchmarks for Success

This brief recommends a governance structure for the European Union’s Just Transition Fund in an attempt to accelerate climate neutrality.

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The European Commission developed a Just Transition Fund as part of the European Green Deal to provide financial support to its member states in transitioning to a low-carbon economy or carbon neutrality. This brief recommends a governance structure for the fund to ensure it complements the entire EU budget, accelerates economy-wide decarbonization, and helps close the low carbon gap between Eastern and Western Europe.

Specifically, the authors issue several recommendations for the fund: prioritize coal and carbon-intensive regions while also focusing on the transition needs of the rest of the economy; require that member states propose a Paris Agreement–compatible plan to phase out heavy emissions activities, including coal mining; finance the development of just transition strategies, which can mobilize other finance mechanisms; and work toward a clear goal such as climate neutrality by 2050.

The Political Economy of Energy in Central and Eastern Europe: Supporting the New Zero Transition

This report compares the political economy of the energy transition in Bulgaria, Czechia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia to inform policy interventions that will accelerate the energy transition in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE).

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This report examines the political economy of the energy transition in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), providing country-level insights into Bulgaria, Czechia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Slovakia. The authors use their political economy mapping methodology (PEMM) to examine trends in expanding renewable energy, using coal for energy production, planning for transitions, ensuring energy security, promoting energy efficiency, and responding to public concern for climate action. These insights inform the authors’ recommendations to support the European Green Deal and to accelerate the energy transition in the CEE.

The authors discuss the untapped potential of renewable energy in the CEE, detailing each country’s renewable energy plans and how improvements in energy efficiency could significantly reduce emissions in the region given the current energy-intensive state of their economies. They argue that domestically produced wind and solar energy could not only address air pollution but also help CEE countries achieve greater energy independence from Russia.

The authors discuss each country’s reliance on coal for energy production. While Slovakia, Hungary, and Czechia have recently decided to accelerate the transition away from coal, only Czechia and Slovakia have reportedly laid the foundation for a managed transition and developed transition strategies for their coal regions. The government of Hungary, as well as those of Bulgaria and Poland, has yet to plan for the transition of coal regions.

While public concern over climate change and other environmental issues such as air pollution is reportedly low in the CEE, it seems to be increasing in response to youth protests, extreme weather events, and energy access concerns. That said, the European Union remains the main driver of energy transition policies and funding in the CEE, and there have been recent tensions between the European Union and some CEE member states regarding climate plans. The authors conclude by providing recommendations on how to support sustainable energy, finance the transition, and establish inclusive policymaking processes.

Principles for a Just Transition in Agriculture

This report stresses the need to include marginalized groups such as women and migrant workers in transitions from industrialized agriculture to agroecology practices.

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This report promotes the global transition from resource-intensive industrialized agriculture to agroecology. It recommends governments and local communities collaborate to address world hunger, gender injustice, workers’ rights, and smallholder participation within their efforts to decrease the agriculture sector’s climate impacts. The authors provide a list of policy recommendations to achieve these climate and equity goals and brief examples of effective and ineffective policies.

The authors argue that this transition must minimize disruption to farmers’ lives and include traditionally marginalized groups such as women and migrant workers. Such a transition must incorporate an inclusive and participatory planning process, comprehensive policy frameworks, social protection, and guarantees of positive opportunities for affected communities to ensure their acceptance of and participation in the transition.

If appropriately done, such a transition can provide numerous benefits. More specifically, it could help decarbonize the agricultural sector, introduce sustainable farming practices (which can increase crop yield and resilience to climate change), alleviate world hunger, provide social protections for women and migrant workers, and decrease the control and influence of agribusiness.