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What is "Just Transition"?

Brown to Green: The G20 Transition to a Low-Carbon Economy

This report examines the progress made by the G20 countries in their transition to low-carbon and climate-resilient economies and addresses the need for a just transition.


This report from Climate Transparency reviews climate actions by the Group of Twenty (G20) states, assessing their transition to low-carbon and climate-resilient economies. The report questions whether the G20 countries are on track to meet Paris Agreement goals, documenting leaders and laggards.

The report finds that current Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) would lead to a global temperature increase of around 3.2 degrees Celsius. The authors outline the progress made by G20 countries since the Paris Agreement based on several decarbonization indicators. They criticize nearly all G20 countries for not implementing climate mitigation policies more aggressively, calling on them to institute a 50% emissions cut by 2030 to reach Paris Agreement goals.

The report analyzes several just transition initiatives in G20 countries to identify lessons learned. In Canada, for example, a federal task force developed a just transition plan for coal workers and communities, and the Chinese government seeks to allocate $4.5 billion over the next three years to support the closure of small coal mines. Australia, on the other hand, negotiated a comprehensive agreement with the Victoria government and three privately owned power stations to reduce job losses rather than manage their effects.

Transition Management with ‘Just Transition’ in Japanese Power Sector

This presentation analyzes the potential impacts on employment of decarbonizing the Japanese power sector through a just transition.


This presentation, given at the International Forum for Sustainable Asia, discusses the potential employment impacts of decarbonizing the Japanese power sector in line with Japan’s 80% emissions reductions target by 2050. Based on power sector employment data, the author identifies the potential impacts on employment by location and economic sector, as well as on demographic inequalities within the workforce.

The results indicate that decarbonization will result in a net increase in domestic employment and supply stable jobs in rural areas. They also indicate that it will ameliorate existing inequalities in the working-age population, contributing to the revitalization of local economies. However, surplus workers will likely be pushed out of conventional power plant jobs. The author concludes that a just transition is possible if governments implement policy measures to support surplus workers and communicate layoff decisions well in advance.