This paper defines two paradigms to advance discussions on transitions to sustainability in food systems: a multi-level perspective (MLP) and a social practices approach (SPA). These two analytical pathways offer complementary insights into the dynamics, durability, and significance of the role of food systems innovation in transitions to sustainability.
The first approach, MLP, focuses on investigating how technology and policy innovations drive transitions to sustainability, in particular how and why they displace more established practices. The second approach, SPA, instead focuses on how behavioral shifts over time contribute to sustainability. More specifically, SPA analyses examine the consequences for resource use of shifting expectations of comfort, cleanliness, and convenience.